Družboslovne razprave 73 (XXIX)

Homophobia - a unifying experience?

Roman Kuhar, Judit Takács

ABSTRACT: Introduction to the thematic block

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How to measure homophobia in an international comparison?

Judit Takács, Ivett Szalma

ABSTRACT: How to measure homophobia in internationally comparable ways is a central issue of the present study. Our main goal was to compare attitudes on homophobia in 26 European countries as measured by different variables within two large-scale longitudinal surveys, the European Social Survey and the European Values Study, with both following multistage probabilistic sampling plans, in order to enable a better understanding of the main determinants of homophobic attitudes at the individual as well as country levels. Our dependent variables were the following: the ‘ justification’ of homosexuality, non-preference for homosexual neighbours, and acceptance of gay men and lesbian women (agreement with the statement that gay men and lesbians should be free to live their own life as they wish). We constructed multilevel fixed- -effects linear regression and multilevel logistic regression models in order to test our hypotheses regarding the validity of our homophobia measurement instruments as well as the effects of socio-demographic, attitudinal and country-level variables on homophobic attitudes.

KEY WORDS: homophobia, European Social Survey, European Values Study, multilevel regression

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Heteronormativity in secondary schools in Zagreb: Young men wearing make-up, kissing and walking proudly

Nataša Bijelić, Amir Hodžić

ABSTRACT: This paper analyses the presence and characteristics of heteronormativity in the context of the Croatian school system by focusing on secondary schools in the capital of Zagreb. We base our analysis on the results of a survey on opinions and attitudes regarding homosexuality conducted on a sample of 322 students and 117 teachers in nine secondary schools. The research reveals that stereotypes and prejudice towards lesbians and gays are omnipresent and widespread. Both students and teachers hold highly discriminatory attitudes concerning the visible/public expression of non-heteronormative gender and sexual identities. In addition, almost one-third of all students reported having resorted to verbal/physical violence against a person because of their alleged homosexual orientation. Moreover, we explore the research findings in relation to the (non)existence and (in)visibility of LGBT issues in school curricula and textbooks. In addition, we consider the recent (September 2012) introduction of a Health Education curriculum which for the first time introduces into Croatian schooling the topics of “acceptance of sexual diversity” and “stigmatisation and discrimination of sexual minorities”. Finally, we outline public debates and reactions to this ‘introduction of homosexuality to Croatian schools’ coming from the Croatian Catholic Church and faith-based organisations.

KEY WORDS: secondary schools, Croatia, young people, homosexuality, sexuality education

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"For me it's just normal" - Strategies of children and young people from rainbow families against de-normalization. The case of Slovenia and Germany.

Ana M. Sobočan, Uli Streib Brzič

ABSTRACT: The paper presents some findings from an international study called “School is out – Experiences of children from rainbow families in school” which explored how children and young people from rainbow families anticipate, experience and deal with schools as heteronormative spaces. In the research, the term de-normalisation was developed to describe the processes by which children with LGBT-identified parents are perceived and constructed as not normal, as classified beyond the ‘hetero-normative normality’, which is expressed through ‘othering’ by others, for example in interaction. To avoid, prevent or reduce the impacts of de-normalisation processes, the interviewed children and youth have developed different strategies which we present in two frames: one involving disclosure and concealment and the other involving verbalisations and justifications. Based on these insights and findings, the article also outlines ideas on the resilience factors against de-normalisation and emphasises the importance of children and youth not standing alone against it.

KEY WORDS: : Rainbow families, children in rainbow families, de-normalisation, heteronormativity, school, normality, homophobia, resilience

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Silence or condemnation: The Orthodox Church on homosexuality in Serbia

Miloš Jovanović

ABSTRACT: The article deals with the representation of the gay population in the discourse of the Serbian Orthodox Church. The declarations of Church bodies and officials, as well as unofficial public statements of prominent believers regarding gay persons are analysed. There is an ambivalent attitude towards gay people that is usually expressed in the ‘hate the sin, love the sinner’ formula. There is also a different kind of ambivalence: the Serbian Orthodox Church as well as its faithful either stick to the ‘policy of silence’ regarding LGBT(Q) issues, or they resort to a very strong moralistic judgment and condemnation. This was particularly noticeable around the time of the gay parade taking place in Belgrade in 2010, as well as during the public discussion before the passing of the anti-discrimination law in the national assembly in 2009. The inclusion of philosophical and medical concepts in theological discourse can also be ascertained. As a result, besides the expected ‘sin’, the categories of ‘unnatural/contrary to nature’ and ‘(mental) illness’ are often mentioned in the Church discourse, which is usually saturated with accentuated anti-Westernism.

KEY WORDS:  gay population, Serbian Orthodox Church, ambivalent attitude, moralistic condemnation

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"Governance": vladanje, upravljanje, vladavina ali vladovanje?

Irena Bačlija, Gaja Červ, Maja Turnšek-Hančič

IZVLEČEK: Članek podaja izhodišče za terminologizacijo pojma governance v slovenski politološki in komunikološki vedi. Ponuja družbeno-politično kontekstualizacijo izoblikovanja pojma governance, njegovo pojmovno razčlembo v razmerju do pojmov vladanje, upravljanje in vladavina, ki jo podpira z analizo korpusnih podatkov, in jezikoslovni poimenovalnoteoretski premislek o (ne)ustreznosti poimenovalnih različic, ki za ta pojem trenutno soobstajajo v slovenskih družboslovnih vedah. Avtorice ugotavljajo, da tako na pojmovni kot na izrazni ravni obstaja – trenutno neizpolnjena – potreba po doslednem razločevanju med pojmom governance kot vodenjem in koordinacijo vseh akterjev v javno-političnem procesu, vladanjem kot vodenjem in implementacijo javne politike, ki ju izvaja institucionalno definiran subjekt, ter upravljanjem, ki se nanaša zgolj na  implementacijo določene politike. V prispevku je kot potencialno primerna poimenovalna rešitev za pojem governance predlagan izraz vladovanje, pri čemer avtorice kot ključni argument za terminologizacijo navajajo dosedanjo pomensko neobremenjenost izraza, obenem pa opozarjajo tudi na njegove poimenovalne pomanjkljivosti

KLJUČNE BESEDE: governance, vladovanje, vladanje, upravljanje, terminologija

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Dejavniki izvajanja mehke zanodaje EU na področju enakosti spolov - primer uravnotežene zastopanosti žensk in moških v procesih odločanja

Simona Topolinjak

IZVLEČEK: V članku analiziramo raznovrstne dejavnike izvajanja mehkih politik Evropske unije na področju enakosti spolov v Sloveniji. Osredotočimo se na izvajanje načela uravnotežene zastopanosti žensk in moških v procesih odločanja na področju politike, znanosti in gospodarstva, kjer je delež žensk na najvišjih položajih še vedno nizek. Na podlagi analize EU- in slovenske zakonodaje ter družboslovnih intervjujev z relevantnimi vladnimi in nevladnimi akterji na EU- in nacionalni ravni je bilo ugotovljeno, da je zaradi sprejete mehke zakonodaje na tem področju najpomembnejši akter pri izvajanju nacionalna vlada, ki lahko izbere javnopolitične instrumente in jih prilagodi svojim aspiracijam. Pritisk na izvajanje s strani EU je tako močnejši v času pristopnih pogajanj o vstopu Slovenije v EU in ob močnem delovanju interesnih skupin.

KLJUČNE BESEDE: izvajanje javnih politik, mehka zakonodaja, EU, Slovenija, enakost spolov

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